Swaziland

Introduction ::Swaziland

Background:

Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted in 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s pressured King MSWATI III, Africa's last absolute monarch, to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy, although he has backslid on these promises in recent years. A constitution came into effect in 2006, but the legal status of political parties remains unclear. The African United Democratic Party tried unsuccessfully to register as an official political party in mid 2006. Talks over the constitution broke down between the government and progressive groups in 2007. Swaziland recently surpassed Botswana as the country with the world's highest known HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.

Geography ::Swaziland

Location:

Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa

Geographic coordinates:

26 30 S, 31 30 E

Area:

total: 17,364 sq km

country comparison to the world: 159

land: 17,204 sq km

water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:

total: 535 km

border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline:

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)

Climate:

varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain:

mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m

highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m

Natural resources:

asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc

Land use:

arable land: 10.08%

permanent crops: 0.86%

other: 89.06% (2011)

Irrigated land:

498.5 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

4.51 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 1.04 cu km/yr (4%/2%/94%)

per capita: 962.1 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:

drought

Environment - current issues:

limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:

landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

People and Society ::Swaziland

Nationality:

noun: Swazi(s)

adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups:

African 97%, European 3%

Languages:

English (official, used for government business), siSwati (official)

Religions:

Zionist 40% (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship), Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, other (includes Anglican, Baha'i, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish) 30%

Population:

1,403,362 (July 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure:

0-14 years: 36.9% (male 261,954/female 256,144)

15-24 years: 22.4% (male 158,947/female 155,421)

25-54 years: 32.7% (male 234,805/female 224,703)

55-64 years: 4.2% (male 23,287/female 35,900)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 21,042/female 31,159) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 70.4 %

youth dependency ratio: 64.4 %

elderly dependency ratio: 5.9 %

potential support ratio: 16.8 (2013)

Median age:

total: 20.7 years

male: 20.4 years

female: 21.1 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.17% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Birth rate:

25.68 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Death rate:

13.95 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Urbanization:

urban population: 21.2% of total population (2011)

rate of urbanization: 1.19% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

MBABANE (capital) 74,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.65 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

19.5 (2007 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

320 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

country comparison to the world: 36

Infant mortality rate:

total: 57.19 deaths/1,000 live births

country comparison to the world: 32

male: 61.21 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 53.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 50.01 years

country comparison to the world: 220

male: 50.44 years

female: 49.56 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.96 children born/woman (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 61

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

65.2% (2010)

Health expenditures:

6.6% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 95

Physicians density:

0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density:

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 91% of population

rural: 65% of population

total: 71% of population

unimproved:

urban: 9% of population

rural: 35% of population

total: 29% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 64% of population

rural: 55% of population

total: 57% of population

unimproved:

urban: 36% of population

rural: 45% of population

total: 43% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

25.9% (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 1

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

180,000 (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

7,000 (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne disease: malaria

water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

19.7% (2008)

country comparison to the world: 98

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

6.1% (2007)

country comparison to the world: 81

Education expenditures:

8.2% of GDP (2011)

country comparison to the world: 11

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87.8%

male: 88.4%

female: 87.3% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 11 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 28,043

percentage: 9 % (2000 est.)

Government ::Swaziland

Country name:

conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland

conventional short form: Swaziland

local long form: Umbuso weSwatini

local short form: eSwatini

Government type:

monarchy

Capital:

name: Mbabane

geographic coordinates: 26 19 S, 31 08 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)

Administrative divisions:

4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni

Independence:

6 September 1968 (from the UK)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 6 September (1968)

Constitution:

signed by the king July 2005; went into effect 8 February 2006

Legal system:

mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:

18 years of age

Executive branch:

chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 23 October 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Themba Nhlanganiso MASUKU (since 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch

(For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 10 members elected by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members to serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 10 members appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Assembly - last held on 19 September 2008 (next to be held on 20 September 2013)

election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): the Supreme Court of the Judicature comprising the Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 5 justices) and the High Court (consists of the chief justice - ex officio - and at least 4 justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all constitutional matters

note - the national constitution as amended in 2006 shifted judicial power from the monarch and vested it exclusively in the judiciary

judge selection and term of office: justices of the Supreme Court of the Judicature are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission or JCS, a judicial advisory body consisting of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 members appointed by the monarch, and the JCS head; justices of both courts eligible for retirement at age 65 with mandatory retirement at age 75 for Supreme Court justices and at age 70 for High Court justices

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; National Swazi Courts for administering customary/traditional law (jurisdiction restricted to customary law for Swazi citizens)

Political parties and leaders:

the status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the 2006 Constitution and currently being debated; the following are considered political associations

African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Stanley MAUNDZISA, president]

Imbokodvo National Movement or INM

Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]

People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Swaziland Democracy Campaign

Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions

Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Abednigo Mandla NTSHANGASE

chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002

FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Makila JAMES

embassy: 7th Floor, Central Bank Building, Mahlokohla St., Mbabane

mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane

telephone: [268] 404-6441

FAX: [268] 404-5959

Flag description:

three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally; blue stands for peace and stability, red represents past struggles, and yellow the mineral resources of the country; the shield, spears, and staff symbolize protection from the country's enemies, while the black and white of the shield are meant to portray black and white people living in peaceful coexistence

National symbol(s):

lion; elephant

National anthem:

name: ""Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati"" (Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi)

lyrics/music: Andrease Enoke Fanyana SIMELANE/David Kenneth RYCROFT

note: adopted 1968; the anthem uses elements of both ethnic Swazi and Western music styles

Economy ::Swaziland

Economy - overview:

Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland depends heavily on South Africa from which it receives more than 90% of its imports and to which it sends 60% of its exports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, effectively subsuming Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. The government is heavily dependent on customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), and worker remittances from South Africa supplement domestically earned income. Subsistence agriculture employs approximately 70% of the population. The manufacturing sector has diversified since the mid-1980s. Sugar and wood pulp were major foreign exchange earners; however, the wood pulp producer closed in January 2010, and sugar is now the main export earner. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mines remaining active. Customs revenues plummeted due to the global economic crisis and a drop in South African imports. The resulting decline in revenue has pushed the country into a fiscal crisis. Swaziland is looking to other countries, including South Africa, for assistance, but continues to struggle to meet its monthly payroll and fund government programs. With an estimated 40% unemployment rate, Swaziland''s need to increase the number and size of small and medium enterprises and attract foreign direct investment is acute. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and floods persist as problems for the future. More than one-fourth of the population needed emergency food aid in 2006-07 because of drought, and more than one-quarter of the adult population has been infected by HIV/AIDS.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$6.345 billion (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

$6.441 billion (2011 est.)

$6.424 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$3.751 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

-1.5% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 204

0.3% (2011 est.)

1.9% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$5,900 (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 151

$6,000 (2011 est.)

$6,100 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:

7.6% of GDP (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135

0.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

-2.3% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 85.5%

government consumption: 23.3%

investment in fixed capital: 10.3%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 51.7%

imports of goods and services: -70.8%

(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 7.8%

industry: 45.1%

services: 47.2% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:

sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep

Industries:

coal, wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textiles and apparel

Industrial production growth rate:

0.3% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Labor force:

457,900 (2007)

country comparison to the world: 157

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 70%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Unemployment rate:

40% (2006 est.)

country comparison to the world: 188

Population below poverty line:

69% (2006)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 40.1% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

50.4 (2001)

country comparison to the world: 20

Budget:

revenues: $1.451 billion

expenditures: $1.438 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

38.7% of GDP (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

0.3% of GDP (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Fiscal year:

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

9.4% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 194

6.1% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

8.75% (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101

9% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$403.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

$355.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:

$1.106 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

$1.087 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$762.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

$948.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$203.1 million (31 December 2007)

country comparison to the world: 113

$203.1 million (31 December 2007)

Current account balance:

-$3.8 million (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

-$280.9 million (2011 est.)

Exports:

$2.005 billion (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141

$2.011 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:

soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit

Imports:

$2.152 billion (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

$2.108 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:

motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$741 million (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

$600.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:

$609.8 million (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

$604.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$NA

Exchange rates:

emalangeni per US dollar -

8.2031 (2012 est.)

7.2597 (2011 est.)

7.3212 (2010 est.)

8.42 (2009)

7.75 (2008)

Energy ::Swaziland

Electricity - production:

450 million kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Electricity - consumption:

1.175 billion kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2010)

country comparison to the world: 149

Electricity - imports:

597 million kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 72

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

130,000 kW (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

67.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

32.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Crude oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 207

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 207

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

Crude oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 206

Refined petroleum products - production:

0 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

4,567 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Refined petroleum products - imports:

4,898 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 210

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 210

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 208

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 80

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 207

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

1.113 million Mt (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Communications ::Swaziland

Telephones - main lines in use:

75,800 (2011)

country comparison to the world: 153

Telephones - mobile cellular:

766,500 (2011)

country comparison to the world: 158

Telephone system:

general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system

domestic: single source for mobile-cellular service with a geographic coverage of about 90% and a rising subscribership base; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity roughly 60 telephones per 100 persons in 2011; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay

international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)

Broadcast media:

state-owned TV station; satellite dishes are able to access South African providers; state-owned radio network with 3 channels; 1 private radio station (2007)

Internet country code:

.sz

Internet hosts:

2,744 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 158

Internet users:

90,100 (2009)

country comparison to the world: 162

Transportation ::Swaziland

Airports:

14 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 149

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m:

7 (2013)

Railways:

total: 301 km

country comparison to the world: 120

narrow gauge: 301 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:

total: 3,594 km

country comparison to the world: 160

paved: 1,078 km

unpaved: 2,516 km (2002)

Military ::Swaziland

Military branches:

Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF): Ground Force (includes Air Wing) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18-30 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; compulsory HIV testing required, only HIV-negative applicants accepted (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 344,038 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 201,853

females age 16-49: 175,477 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 16,168

female: 15,763 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

2.6% of GDP (2011)

country comparison to the world: 48

Transnational Issues ::Swaziland

Disputes - international:

in 2006, Swazi king advocated resorting to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from South Africa"

The World Factbook. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • SWAZILAND — Territoire enclavé entre l’Afrique du Sud et le Mozambique, le Swaziland s’étend sur 17 363 kilomètres carrés (soit environ la moitié de la superficie de la Belgique) que peuplent, selon le recensement de 1986, huit cent trente six mille… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Swaziland — [swa′ziland΄] country in SE Africa, surrounded on three sides by South Africa: a former British protectorate, it became an independent kingdom & member of the Commonwealth (1968): 6,705 sq mi (17,366 sq km); pop. 681,000; cap. Mbabane …   English World dictionary

  • Swaziland — /swah zee land /, n. a kingdom in SE Africa between S Mozambique and the E Republic of South Africa: formerly a British protectorate. 1,031,600; 6704 sq. mi. (17,363 sq. km). Cap.: Mbabane. * * * Swaziland Introduction Swaziland Background:… …   Universalium

  • Swaziland — Infobox Country native name = Umbuso weSwatini conventional long name = Kingdom of Swaziland common name = Swaziland national motto = Siyinqaba nbsp|2(Swati) We are a fortress We are a mystery/riddle We hide ourselves away national anthem =… …   Wikipedia

  • Swaziland — Umbuso we Swatini (sw) Kingdom of Swaziland (en) Royaume du Swazi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Swaziland — noun a landlocked monarchy in southeastern Africa; member of the commonwealth that achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1968 • Syn: ↑Kingdom of Swaziland • Instance Hypernyms: ↑African country, ↑African nation • Part Holonyms: ↑Africa …   Useful english dictionary

  • Swaziland — Kingdom of Swaziland (Englisch) Umbuso we Swatini (Siswati) Königreich Swasiland …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Swaziland — noun Country in Southern Africa. Official name: Kingdom of Swaziland …   Wiktionary

  • Swaziland — geographical name country SE Africa between Republic of South Africa & Mozambique; a former British protectorate; an independent kingdom since 1968 administrative capital Mbabane, legislative capital Lobamba area 6705 square miles (17,433 square… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • SWAZILAND —    (64), a small South African native State to the E. of the Transvaal, of which in 1893 it became a dependency, retaining, however, its own laws and native chief; is mountainous, fertile, and rich in minerals; the Swazis are of Zulu stock,… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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